Questions and Answers about Telecommuting
for Persons with Disabilities:
A Guide for Employers
Dr. James E. Jarrett
Graduate School of Business
The University of Texas at Austin
The Independent Living Research Utilization Program
The Institute for Rehabilitation and Research
ILRU Program & James Jarrett, Copyright 1996
Link to RTF version of this
A Guide for Human Resource Staff
Successful Telecommuting by Persons with
Home/Alternative Work Site
Summary of Survey Results
A Guide for Human Resource Staff
This guide is for human resource staffs and supervisors in private
and public organizations on issues related to telecommuting by employees
with disabilities. The guide is based mainly on a national mail
survey conducted in early 1995 of approximately 500 employers. Additional
information for the guide came from telephone interviews, reviews
of materials submitted by corporations and by departments of federal,
state, and local governments, and analysis of prior telecommuting
About 160 employers had responded at the time this guide was being
written. Responses came from all types of employers: some employers
did not track if persons with disabilities were among their organization's
telecommuters; some employers did not have telecommuting employees
with disabilities; and some employers did have telecommuting employees
The purpose of this guide is to present key issues involved with
employees and potential employees with disabilities who are or may
wish to begin telecommuting. Telecommuting in this guide means working
at least one day each week at home or an alternative work location
near home. The guide addresses issues from an employer's perspective.
A companion guide addresses related issues from an employee's perspective.
Both guides were prepared in a question-and-answer format for ease
Grateful acknowledgments are made to the sponsors of the research
and the guides: The Dole Foundation for Employment of People with
Disabilities, The JM Foundation, and the Rose M. Badgeley Residuary
Charitable Trust. All views and opinions expressed are those of
the research team and not the sponsoring organizations.
Q Do many businesses or
government agencies employ telecommuters who have disabilities?
A Yes. A researcher at
the Business School of The University of Texas (UT) at Austin in
cooperation with The Institute for Rehabilitation and Research (TIRR)
conducted a recent nationwide survey. This research identified more
than 35 organizations that employ telecommuters who have disabilities.
The numbers of private corporations and government agencies were
roughly equal with a limited number of nonprofit agencies. The organizations
ranged in size from less than 50 employees to the U.S. Department
of Defense. Geographically, all regions of the United States were
represented as were organizations from Canada, the United Kingdom,
The survey found several distinct types of telecommuting
programs established for persons with permanent and temporary
The number of employers with telecommuters who have disabilities
is greater than 35 organizations, without doubt, for three reasons.
- About half of all organizations responding to the survey do
not track if they have telecommuters with disabilities, and some
of these organizations have more than 1,000 telecommuters.
- Programs are known to include employees with disabilities but
the surveys were not completed.
- The survey effort was limited to approximately 500 employers
because of resource constraints.
Q What types, of telecommuting
initiatives involve employees with disabilities?
A Several distinct types
of initiatives exist although some overlap.
- Some programs and projects are established solely for persons
with disabilities. Some have been in existence for more than seven
years while others are relatively new. Generally, the older programs
were set up for individuals with permanent, physical impairments.
The more recently established programs often were set up not only
for such individuals but also for the reemployment of employees
with temporary disabilities.
- Another type of program is less formal and usually does not
include a formal telecommuting program or telecommuting policy.
In this instance, employees are working in unique job accommodations
for temporary conditions such as pregnancy complications, cancer
treatments, broken limbs, family medical emergencies, or other
- A third type of program occurs when employees with disabilities
participate as part of an employer's larger telecommuting program.
According to survey results, this program is the most frequently
used type of telecommuting for employees with disabilities.
- Some telecommuting projects are in reality home-based employment
programs. These programs are for individuals who, because of the
nature of their disabilities or transportation difficulties, are
unable to have a job in which regular and reliable on-site attendance
- Employees with disabilities, who often have computer-related
training, have been placed in probationary positions with for-profit
firms by nonprofit agencies. Although many of these individuals
can work on-site, others cannot and perform some of their duties
off-site. These employers often do not consider that they have
formal telecommuting programs or policies in effect.
Q Why do firms, organizations,
and governments use telecommuting for employees with disabilities?
Most employers are positive about their telecommuting
A While telecommuting might
be seen as a work place option that primarily serves employees'
needs, nearly all telecommuting programs involving persons with
disabilities are established to fill employers' needs. The results
of the UT TIRR survey show that the most important reasons for creating
and maintaining this work place practice are to accomplish the following:
- Retain valuable employees and/or reemploy trained employees,
thereby lowering employee recruitment and training costs and sometimes
reducing workers' compensation expenses.
- Respond to particular employees' medical or family situations,
keep morale high, and retain their loyalty.
- Fill positions for which recruitment had been difficult or in
which turnover had been high such as evening shift jobs, part
time positions, or jobs that previously were in crime-ridden locations.
- Comply with trip reduction and air quality regulations in certain
metropolitan areas of the United States.
On the survey, 15 percent of employers indicated they had started
telecommuting to increase diversity of their work force and ten
percent to comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act. Telecommuting
is first and foremost a work place option for management.
Q Are your counterparts
at firms and government departments satisfied with telecommuting?
A Nearly all employers
are positive about their telecommuting employees. Fewer than three
percent of employers indicated they had terminated their telecommuting
efforts. However, some organizations probably did not respond to
the survey because they were disenchanted with telecommuting. A
majority of employers (57 percent) believe employees have become
more productive since beginning to telecommute while only six percent
believe productivity has declined.
Telecommuting is not generally viewed as a technique for cost savings.
Many employers indicated that they experienced no appreciable cost
savings or that they did not have sufficient data at this time.
However, employers do anticipate cost savings from reorganization
and downsizing of their physical facilities once the number of telecommuters
increases enough to eliminate permanently some existing office space.
Successful Telecommuting by Persons with
Q What are the requirements
for successful telecommuting by employees with disabilities in contrast
to telecommuting by nondisabled employees?
A The essential requirements
are the same. For any telecommuting program or individual telecommuting
work arrangement to succeed, there are certain "musts"
according to employers with telecommuters. Successful telecommuting
is characterized by answering positively the following questions:
- Type of work assignment. Can the tasks be performed
off site? Can the tasks be completed without significant interaction
with other employees? Jobs with large numbers of telecommuters
include strategic planning, market analysis, program analysis,
budget and finance, and information technology with fewer jobs
in procurement or human resources.
- Supervisory style. Are your supervisors willing
to and capable of managing and monitoring by results rather than
by direct observation of employees' activities?
- Measurement. Can progress toward completing
the work be readily and easily measured? Do known or pre-established
work standards exist to assess employee productivity?
- Equipment. Does the employee have proper equipment
to perform his/her work, especially in interfacing with your organization's
information technologies such as LAN? Will information security
be maintained in transferring data electronically?
- Telecommuting work site. Is the employee's
work site conducive to completing assignments? Have all liability
and legal matters been satisfactorily resolved?
- Telecommuter qualifications. Does the employee
have the necessary skills and abilities to perform the tasks?
Does the particular employee have the disposition and motivation
to work regularly by her/himself or does the employee need extensive
interpersonal interaction found within an office environment?
Q Don't other considerations
exist over and above those just mentioned when telecommuting involves
employees with disabilities?
A Yes, usually additional
issues must be addressed. Perhaps the most important issue is isolation.
All telecommuters may suffer from isolation, but for employees with
disabilities the problem can be particularly serious. Employers
should adopt specific policies and procedures to prevent the employees
from losing touch and to maintain a firm's organizational culture
with employees who are off-site. Other employers have adopted a
variety of both short-term and long-term policies and procedures.
Short-term procedures and actions have included the following:
- Mandatory participation in on-site staff meetings, on-site:
social events, and on-site training sessions.
- Limiting telecommuting to a maximum number of days per week,
usually two or three.
- Arranging occasional visits by supervisors and co-workers at
the new work site.
- Requiring telecommuters to check in, via telephone or electronic
mail, a minimum number of times each day or week and/or at pre-established
- Increasing communication among telecommuters with disabilities
through extra on-site meetings after normal departmental or work
team meetings, through electronic mail, and other ways of creating
an employment support network.
Specific policies and procedures can help maintain a firm
's organizational culture with employees who are off-site.
To prevent isolation over the long-term, some organizations now
have policies that require on-site positions be made available to
telecommuters with disabilities. For example, one federal agency
has adopted a policy that telecommuters with disabilities must be
offered on-site employment at least every two years and that employees
may request a change to an on-site position at any time after completion
of probation. Obviously, the availability of positions and each
employee's disabilities will be factors in adopting such policies.
Q Do other employers believe
their current practices are adequate to prevent isolation of telecommuters?
A Yes. Based on the nationwide
survey, an overwhelming majority of employers believe current practices
have proven sufficient to prevent isolation of telecommuters. Eighty
percent of employers who have one or more telecommuters with disabilities
believe ". . . existing practices are adequate to prevent isolation
of telecommuters and to maintain satisfactory communication among
employees." Only one of the 30 employers indicated that existing
practices are inadequate. Among employers who do not have telecommuters
with disabilities, the result was nearly the same. About 60 percent
indicated their existing practices and procedures are proving successful.
Q What are other considerations
for telecommuting employees with disabilities?
A Employers should give
special attention to assistive technology and equipment needed by
individual employees. The cost of some assistive technology for
employees with disabilities is higher than for other telecommuters.
This higher cost is especially the case with some newer equipment
for employees who are blind or visually impaired. However, only
about one of every seven employers cites the cost of equipment or
problems with equipment as a barrier to telecommuting. This issue
was cited just as frequently among all employers with employees
who have disabilities.
Yet, not every telecommuter will use computers extensively. The
survey found some supervisors of telecommuters indicating the only
mandatory piece of equipment is a telephone. Some telecommuters
use only paper and pencil to complete assignments off-site.
Transportation-related issues also are more important for employees
with disabilities than for most other telecommuters in your organization.
Where public transit is inadequate or not conducive to use by mobility
or visually-impaired individuals, many employees with disabilities
are forced to travel by a private vehicle. Telecommuting by employees
with disabilities becomes more necessary in metropolitan areas under
air quality improvement mandates and where parking for private vehicles
is either very limited or expensive.
Q What if an employee cannot
come to the central work site on a regular basis?
A Procedures for preventing
isolation were outlined previously. In some cases, however, the
employees may not be able to come to a central work site without
undue difficulty even several times a week. For individuals with
the most significant disabilities, work might need to be taken to
their home-site. One organization sends a courier daily to six different
home-based telecommuters to deliver new work assignments and to
pick up completed ones. All six telecommuters live within a 25-mile
radius of the central office site.
Q Are employees with disabilities
satisfied with their telecommuting arrangements?
A As noted earlier, we
have not directly asked employees with disabilities if they are
pleased with their job arrangements, so a definitive answer to this
question cannot be provided.
Some indirect evidence indicates employee satisfaction, however.
According to employers, very few individual telecommuters with disabilities
have stopped telecommuting. Those who have stopped generally did
so for the following reasons: they moved away, their disability
became more limiting, or they took a job with another firm. Only
a handful stopped telecommuting to resume their prior work schedule
at the employer's main location.
Home/Alternative Work Site
Q What typically do employers
purchase, and what are telecommuters expected to purchase?
A Most employers will reimburse
installation charges for any new phone lines and for business-related
calls made from the remote work site. Necessary office supplies
are obtained from the central work site.
Employees are responsible for additional utility costs and for
any expenses related to furniture. Employers often provide computer
equipment, whereas some employers allow employees to use their own
equipment but do not supply equipment for off-site locations. Employers
usually are responsible for correct ergonomics and, therefore, should
provide any necessary ergonomic alterations.
Q What if an injury occurs
at the remote work site?
A Injuries are covered
by workers' compensation laws just as if the injury occurred at
the central office location.
Telecommuters are responsible for maintaining safe working conditions.
To ensure that such conditions exist, some employers insist that
supervisors have the right to make on-site inspections at mutually
agreed upon times. One employer asks employees who are interested
in telecommuting to provide a photograph of their intended work
site as part of their application for telecommuting. Most emplyoyers
exclude injuries to a telecommuter if they occur outside the designated
work area at a telecommuter's residence or outside the agreed-upon
work hours Only ten percent of employers reported insurance, liability,
or legal issues are limiting telecommuting within their organization.
Q What if property is stolen
from a telecommuter's site?
A Most employers have Insurance
coverage that extends to remote work site locations of their employees.
If telecommuters are using their own equipment to perform duties
for your organization or firm, then employees should check their
homeowner's or renter's insurance policies to ensure that any loss
will be covered. Insurance is not always a clear-cut issue, however.
At least one major corporation requires telecommuters to add an
insurance rider for incidental business use. The corporation insists
on being added as an additional insured party on the rider. For
the large majority of employers, however, insurance is not a concern
nor are liablity or legal issues.
Q While telecommuters may
be more productive in accomplishing their assignments, doesn't telecommuting
put an extra burden on an organization's supervisors and managers?
A In theory, managing people
off-site should be no different from managing them on-site. After
all, a good manager manages by results not activities. Yet, in reality
a new telecommuting program can generate more work for supervisors
and managers if many people in the department are telecommuting
and schedules need to be juggled or if office employees are asking
supervisors questions that the telecommuters should be answering.
Methods exist to adjust to these growing pains at the beginning
of a telecommuting project, so be prepared when they arise. Reasonably
priced training packages are available for both supervisors and
telecommuters so both can anticipate and prevent common problems.
Q Isn't there a danger
that employees who are not telecommuting will become resentful that
others are telecommuting or that the office employees will need
to perform some tasks that previously were performed by employees
who are now telecommuting?
A Resentment by co-workers
is possible, and both supervisors and telecommuters must take steps
to keep it to a minimum. Employers should establish specific guidelines
to prevent the nontelecommuting office employees from shouldering
too many additional tasks.
Methods for communicating with the telecommuters should be identified
so that office employees can handle unforeseen circumstances. For
example, some telecommuters forward all calls from their central
office phones to their remote work site telephone which makes contacts
as transparent as possible. Some organizations require employees
to post telecommuting schedules.
Also, co-workers should have an opportunity to voice their concerns
about the work arrangement and to discuss possible solutions to
Supervisors should be especially careful to describe the selection
criteria used for choosing telecommuters in those organizations
in which not every employee is eligible to telecommute. Unless employees
understand the criteria and specifically why their job or their
past job performance precludes telecommuting, resentment is likely
Supervisors should be especially careful to describe
the selection criteria used for choosing telecommuters in
those organizations in which not every employee is eligible
Q Would extra work arise
for supervisors or human resource professionals in an organization
in devising and implementing a telecommuting program?
A Each organization's
standard operating procedures and culture will determine the amount
of oversight required. Some employers have no guidelines or policies
while others have issued only general guidelines for supervisors.
Other employers have the following procedures: a formal policy,
guidelines for supervisors, application procedures for potential
telecommuters, rules for employee off-site behavior such as notification
to central office staff if employees leave temporarily their remote
site during core hours, employee-supervisor agreements, and checklists
for supplies and equipment in the off-site work location.
Several employers have assembled all relevant materials for supervisors
and telecommuters in easy-to-use manuals.
Q It is one thing for dependable
current employees to begin telecommuting, but should new employees
be able to telecommute also?
A A majority of firms will
start new employees under a telecommuting arrangement. About 47
percent of all employers surveyed indicated that telecommuting is
viable for new hires. Another 19 percent think new employees "possibly"
might be allowed to telecommute. A rather large number, about 20
percent, however, were unsure.
About seven percent of all employers surveyed do not support telecommuting
by new employees. The most commonly expressed reasons are that probationary
employees need to be monitored more closely, that time is needed
at the central work site to develop solid working relationships
and to grasp all aspects of the job, and that new employees must
be on-site to absorb the organization's culture.
Most employers who expressed reservations about telecommuting by
new hires indicate that employees should work at least one year
full time on-site before telecommuting.
With respect to new employees with disabilities, the safest course
of action may be to require on-site employment to the extent possible
during the first six to 18 months. Yet, on-site employment by a
new employee with a disability may not be possible due to the nature
of his or her disability. Then the employer should consider a telecommuting
pilot project for a small number of new employees who can fill critical
needs of the organization. Several organizations have implemented
such projects successfully, and information can be provided upon
Q Does telecommuting affect
the amount of sick leave usage which employees take or their turnover
A Some evidence from employers
shows that telecommuters do not use as much sick leave although
the data is not entirely conclusive. Telecommuters who need to go
to a medical appointment often can rearrange their schedules so
that they do not need to use sick leave. That often is not possible
when situated at the central work office because medical appointment
locations usually are closer to homes than to offices.
In addition, some telecommuters may be able to work at home when
they do not feel well enough for a regular commute and to spend
an entire day at the office. Other employers have speculated that
lower stress from avoiding tedious commutes one or two days a week
reduces the number of marginal sick days an employee will take.
Any reduction in sick leave usage should be considered an indirect
and added benefit from telecommuting rather than a goal for creating
a telecommuting program.
Some prior studies have speculated about telecommuters tending
to have lower turnover rates because of improved morale and because
the needs of well performing employees are being met. As far as
is known, no solid evidence substantiates this belief. The survey
of employers did not address this issue.
Q What if a supervisor
agrees to let employees telecommute and it doesn't work out?
A Nearly all employers
follow the policy that telecommuting arrangements are voluntary
and both employee and employer must agree to the policy. The exceptions
are some firms that have large roving sales staffs and some firms
that are struggling to meet trip reduction mandates under air quality
Because most firms adhere to the voluntary nature of telecommuting,
if supervisors are dissatisfied then they should discontinue the
Q Why do many employers
require signed telecommuting agreements?
A The primary reason is
that both managers and employees are forced to identify key terms
and conditions of the telecommuting arrangement. Elements commonly
addressed include the telecommuting schedule, both by days of the
week and by hours of the day procedures for obtaining messages,
equipment arrangements, and safety requirements at the home or remote
site. A written agreement improves planning, and a greater likelihood
exists for a common understanding of what is expected of the employee
and to what conditions the employer has agreed.
Q Should consideration
be given to converting a career employee to a contract employee
if (s)he telecommutes frequently or full time?
A This issue has arisen
as a point of contention in a small number of companies. The incidence
of telecommuting should not change or affect the employment status.
Q Should telecommuting
be viewed as the primary work place accommodation for employees
and potential employees who have disabilities?
A As with the question
of telecommuting by new employees, employers have differing views.
About 25 percent of employers reported telecommuting is the single
most important type of work place accommodation for persons with
disabilities. About a similar proportion are unsure. Thirty one
percent disagree or strongly disagree that telecommuting is the
single most important type of accommodation. They view telecommuting
as a work place accommodation that is not a
substitute for but is a supplement to accommodations at the central
Several employers who had the most extensive experience with telecommuting
employees with disabilities had a somewhat different perspective.
These employers stated the question about telecommuting by employees
with disabilities cannot be answered in the abstract or for all
employees. They have found telecommuting to be a successful work
place accommodation for some persons with disabilities, and they
have found telecommuting to be an inappropriate accommodation for
other individuals. These employers said that successful telecommuting
by employees with disabilities depends on the individual employee,
the type of work being performed, and proper equipment: in short,
meeting the "musts" identified earlier.
Telecommuting employees with disabilities must address one or more
of your organization's objectives. Employers responding to the survey
view telecommuting this way. To summarize:
- Several types of telecommuting programs exist involving persons
- Nearly all employers are positive about their telecommuting
employees with fewer than three percent of employers indicating
they had terminated their telecommuting efforts.
- Employers have found telecommuting increases employee productivity.
- Other organizational benefits have included retaining valuable
employees, reemploying trained employees, and filling positions
for which recruitment had been difficult or in which turnover
had been high.
- Employers believe the essential requirements for successful
telecommuting are generally the same for persons with disabilities
and nondisabled employees except for issues of assistive technology
and employee isolation. An overwhelming proportion of employers
feel that isolation of telecommuters with disabilities is being
addressed adequately by short-term actions and long-term policies.
- Various supervisory issues may derail a telecommuting effort
although planning and existing training materials should suffice
to overcome the potential problems.
- Telecommuting should be viewed as one type of accommodation
that may be particularly well-suited for some persons with disabilities.
In some situations, telecommuting may be suitable for new hires.
Telecommuting for employees with disabilities has been successful
in most cases. Telecommuting should be considered when it would
serve your organization's needs and when that type of accommodation
is sought by an employee. Other employers have considered it and
adopted it to everyone's benefit.
Summary of Survey Results
Finding: Telecommuting is an option for new employees with disabilities.
Nearly half of all employers (47 percent) would consider telecommuting
by new employees with a disability. This finding is surprising because
telecommuting entails trust between a supervisor and an employee,
because telecommuting sometimes is restricted to employees with
superior work histories, and because an increasing number of organizations
believe their cultures and work practices are important to orient
new employees. Only seven percent of employers said they definitely
would not hire new employees with disabilities and allow them to
In addition, another 19 percent of employers said they possibly
would hire a new telecommuter with a disability, and about one of
every five employers did not know if their organization would. The
views of employers with telecommuting employees with disabilities
were generally the same, although a higher proportion (62 percent)
of these employers said they would recommend hiring a new employee
with a disability and allow him or her to telecommute immediately.
This finding, which deserves further exploration in additional
research and through other surveys, does suggest that telecommuting
has the potential to provide dramatic employment opportunities for
persons with disabilities.
Many resources are available to employers who are interested in
telecommuting. Some of the best illustrative and helpful written
materials from employers are listed below. Contact James Jarrett
via E-mail at email@example.com
or by telephone at 521-471-6990 for a referral to the organizations
which first issued the document or videotape.
Guides and Handbooks
Telecommuting Guide. Guidelines and suggestions
for both supervisors and telecommuters covering the full range of
implementation issues; also a fact sheet. County of Los Angeles.
Employee Handbook and Manager Handbooks. Each
with self-assessment guides, agreements, hints and directions for
successful telecommuting, and scenarios and pitfalls to avoid. Tandem
Telecommuting Manual. Training aid, ongoing reference,
do's and don'ts for both supervisors and telecommuters, forms, checklists,
ergonomics, diaries. City of San Diego.
Telecommuting Manual. Guidelines, suggestions
for successful telecommuting, do's and don'ts, home office supply
checklist and safety and ergonomics checklist. BULL HN Information
Systems Inc., Phoenix.
Telecommuting Policy & Procedure Manual. Detailed
sections on implementing telecommuting in a large organization,
including the roles of departmental coordinators, training, forms
and agreements, and screening surveys for both supervisors and employees.
County of Sacramento.
Telecommuting Handbook. Guidelines, policy, agreements,
checklist for telecommuters and for non-telecommuting staff support.
California Department of Motor Vehicles, Sacramento, CA.
Telecommuting Guide. Agreement forms, benefits
and adjustments, selection, supervising telecommuters, and being
a telecommuter. City of Fort Collins, Colorado.
Implementing Telecommuting. A manual which supersedes
the earlier federal government's Flexible Workplace Program Handbook.
Participation criteria, work schedules, telecommunications and equipment,
the work site, and other considerations. U.S. General Services Administration,
Balancing Work and Family Demands Through Telecommuting.
16 page booklet that outlines the key elements that agencies, managers,
and employees should consider when establishing a home-based telecommuting
program. Provides a list of resources, a sample agreement, and a
checklist about the home office. U.S. Office of Personnel Management,
Telecommuting Implementation Manual. Overview,
how to get started, how to set up, how to supervise and manage,
and how to be in compliance. Midwest Institute for Telecommuting
Education, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Telecommuting Work Option. Information guidelines,
model policies, evaluating and monitoring, and supervisor's checklist
for telecommuters. Telecommuting Advisory Group, State of California.
Agreements and Forms
Work At Home (Temporary) Telecommuting Agreement.
U.S. International Trade Commission, Washington, D.C.
Telecommuting Agreement Form. Valley Metro Regional
Public Transportation Authority Phoenix.
Equipment/Software Inventory Form. Department
of Personnel, State of Washington, Olympia, Washington.
Telecommuting Application Request Form. Minnesota
Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, Minnesota.
Telecommuting Application Form. City of Los Angeles.
Memorandum on Flexiplace for People with Disabilities.
Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (Civilian Personnel
Policy /Equal Opportunity), U.S. Department of Defense, Washington,
Managing Information Resources for Accessibility.
Center on Information Technology Accommodation (formerly the Clearinghouse
on Computer Accommodation), U.S. General Services Administration,
A Day Seminar on Implementing Telecommuting. Midwest
Institute for Telecommuting Education.
Policy and Procedure Statement on Telecommuting from Client
Locations. Ernst & Young LLP, Houston.
Questions and Answers on Computer and Telephone Issues.
65 pages of questions and answers about technology to support telecommuting
including five pages of questions for persons with disabilities.
U.S. General Services Administration, Washington, D.C.
Orientation to Telecommuting. Trainer's Guide
and Participant Workbooks. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington,
Federal telecommuting bulletin board system (TeleConX). U.S. General
Services Administration. Addresses: (1) Telnet FedWorld.gov and
select #56 on Gateway menu; or (2) Via modem, dial (202) 501-7741.
Internet home page for Center
on Information Technology Accommodation (formerly the Clearinghouse
on Computer Accommodation), the U.S. General Services Administration.
Internet home page for Telecommuting
Advisory Council (TAC)., http:/ /www.telecommute.org
Internet home page on telecommuting,
teleworking, and alternative officing by Gil Gordon and David
Internet home page for Telecommuting
and Travel Research Program of the Institute of Transportation Studies
at University California at Davis. http:/ /www.engr.ucdavis.edu/~its/telecom
A 12-minute video for upper management; A 30-minute
video, facilitator's guide, and reproducible workbook slicks on
implementing telecommuting. Arizona Department of Administration,
A 20-minute video, discussion guide, and participant
hand-out that examines the lives and issues of four telecommuters
(Working From Home). Midwest Institute for Telecommuting Education,
A 10-minute video on "Home Based Employment."
Bureau of Personnel Management, Division of Motor Vehicles, Wisconsin
Department of Transportation, Madison, Wisconsin.
A 5-minute video on telecommuting. County of Los
ILRU is a program of TIRR, a nationally recognized, free-standing
rehabilitation facility for persons with physical disabilities.
TIRR is part of TIRR systems, which is a not-for-profit corporation
dedicated to providing a continuum of services to individuals with
disabilities. Since 1959, TIRR has provided patient care, education,
and research to promote the integration of people with physical
and cognitive disabilities into all aspects of community living.
The Independent Living Research Utilization Program
2323 S. Shepherd, Suite 1000
Houston, TX 77019
713-520-0232 (v), 713-520-5136 (TTY)
ILRU Project Team:
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James Jarrett, Research Consultant
Quentin Smith, Project Coordinator
Carol Smith, Consulting Editor
Pat Schrader, Consulting Graphic Designer
ILRU Publication Team:
Dawn Heinsohn, Agnes McAllister,
Rose Shepard, and Tajauna Dunning