Resources on Personal Assistance Services

The following list of resources is provided to supplement the trainings, publications and other resources on Personal Assistance Services contained on this website.

Guidebooks and Toolkits

  • Consumer Directed Personal Assistance Guide
    http://www.independentliving.org/docs6/conceptsmanual.html#anchor46
    The first section of this guide is for Concepts of Independence consumers, this second section has information on hiring, training, supervising, evaluating and terminating personal assistants.
  • Developing & Implementing Participant Direction Programs & Policies: A Handbook, National Resource Center for Participant-Directed Services
    http://www.bc.edu/schools/gssw/nrcpds/tools/handbook.html
    This 296 page handbook is a guide for disability service systems staff who are interested in participant direction programs. Topics include self-direction, legal authority, involving participants, budgeting, counseling, fiscal agents, quality management, looking ahead, and more.
  • Making the Move to Managing Your Own PAS: A Toolkit for Youth with Disabilities Transitioning to Adulthood, National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability for Youth
    http://www.ncwd-youth.info/PAS-Toolkit

    The goal of this 66 page 2010 guidebook is to help youth successfully manage their own PAS. Topics include effective communication, time-management, covering costs, recognizing abusive situations, establishing professional relationships, and hiring, managing and firing assistants.
  • PAS Fundamentals, World Institute on Disability
    http://wid.org/publications/pas-fundamentals/
    PAS Fundamentals offers a comprehensive 53 page overview of PAS. This manual examines different PAS models, the diversity of PAS delivery and funding. A
  • Personal Assistance Guide: A guide for hiring, management, and conflict resolution, Utah Assistive Technology Program 
    This 89 page guide was developed for consumers to find, fund, train and manage personal assistants. Subjects include defining needs, locating funding sources, advertising, interviewing, contracts, training, taxes, firing, and accessing assistive technology, with checklists and forms.
  • Personal Assistance in the Workplace: A Customer-Directed Guide, Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Workplace Supports
    http://www.worksupport.com/research/viewContent.cfm/129
    This 92 page manual covers self-assessment, using PAS as a workplace support, training a person with a disability to use PAS, employers' perspectives, keys to being an effective assistant, assistive technology, funding options, independent living and employment services.
  • Personal Assistance Services Curriculum for Individuals with Psychiatric Disabilities, Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation, Boston University
    http://cpr.bu.edu/resources/curricula/personal-assistance-services
    This curriculum prepares those interested in becoming PAS providers for individuals with psychiatric disabilities.  This basic curriculum is designed to be used by individuals with disabilities, mental health workers, as well as those with no expertise in mental health.
  • Personal Assistance Services Guide, State of CA, Department of Developmental Services
    http://www.dds.ca.gov/Publications/docs/PASGuide.pdf
    The focus of this document is PAS for adults with developmental disabilities who live in their own home.  It covers planning, hiring, training and retaining personal assistants.
  • Taking Charge: A Hands-On Guide to Personal Assistance Services, Ohio Developmental Disabilities Council
    http://ddc.ohio.gov/pub/TC-05.PDF

    This guidebook covers determining needs, advertising, hiring, managing, background checks, and reducing stress. There are example interview topics and questions, needs checklists, job descriptions, duties worksheet, sample working agreement, time log, payroll sheet and tax forms.

Books

  • Avoiding Attendants from HELL: a practical guide to finding, hiring & keeping personal care attendants. June Price (2001). 126 pages.
    http://www.amazon.com/AVOIDING-Attendants-HELL-Practical-Attendants/dp/1888725605/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1310500815&sr=1-1 
    June Price is also an advocate with two decades of personal PAS experience. She has written a practical guide on learning how to find, hire, manage, and keep good personal care attendants.
  • Caregivers and Personal Assistants: How to Find, Hire, and Manage the People Who Help You (Or Your Loved One!). Alfred H. DeGraff (2002). 512 pages.
    http://www.bookfinder.com/author/alfred-h-degraff/
    This extensive resource from an author with a disability describes how to find, hire and manage quality PAS. It includes step-by-step strategies for recruiting, interviewing, screening, hiring, training, managing, and parting ways. Advice is included on living in harmony with family caregivers.
  • The Personal Care Attendant Guide: The Art of Finding, Keeping, or Being One. Katie Rodriguez Banister.(2006). 140 pages.
    http://www.access-4-all.com/products/AideGuide/AideGuide.htm
    The author is an advocate with a disability who provides information on how to successfully locate, interview, hire, train, and supervise a personal attendant, with forms and worksheets. Difficult issues such as wages, taxes, and firing an attendant are covered, with real-life examples.

Fact Sheets and Briefs

  • Finding a Workplace Personal Assistant (WPA)
    http://www.worksupport.com/documents/PASFACTSVol2.pdf
    Two page fact sheet that has information on using PAS in the workplace as a reasonable job accommodation, recruiting strategies, hiring the right WPA, work site modifications, workplace scenarios, assistive technology and web resources.
  • Personal Assistance Services in the Workplace (WPAS)
    http://askjan.org/media/PAS.html
    This publication discusses using personal assistance services as an accommodation under the ADA, with WPAS examples to accommodate job applicants and employees, and resources.
  • CLASS Technical Assistance Briefs produced by The SCAN Founcation
    http://www.thescanfoundation.org/class-technical-assistance-briefs-0
    These 16 briefs provide information on developing and implementing the Community Living Assistance Services and Supports Plan, a voluntary, federally-administered insurance program to help individuals pay for needed assistance if they become functionally limited.
  • The Applicability of the ADA to Personal Assistance Services in the Workplace
    http://www.communityinclusion.org/article.php?article_id=21
    This policy brief provides an overview of PAS, Title I of the ADA, and which personal assistance services may be considered a reasonable accommodation under the ADA.
  • Who Are Direct Care Workers?Paraprofessional Healthcare Institute, February 2011
    http://www.directcareclearinghouse.org/download/PHI%20Facts%203.pdf
    Explains job responsibilities, the number of workers and where they are employed, wages, benefits, security, and demand, with demographic, employment and income characteristics.
  • Workplace Personal Assistant Services: Employers Perspective
    http://www.worksupport.com/main/downloads/chapter4.pdf
    This 15 page chapter covers why employers should consider PAS as a reasonable accommodation, employer concerns, what an employer should do following a request, sample job functions, providing an assistant as a reasonable accommodation, and examples of the use of work site modifications, assistive devices, and the use of workplace personal assistants.

Reports and Surveys

  • Consumer Direction of Personal Assistance Services in Medicaid: A Review of Four State Programs, Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured
    http://www.kff.org/medicaid/upload/7757.pdf
    Consumer direction offers Medicaid beneficiaries the flexibility and independence to individualize their services and is possible without using an individual budget. Areas that need more examination are how to build back-up support and increase understanding of PA issues.

Websites

  • National Resource Center for Participant-Directed Services (NRCPDS)
    http://www.bc.edu/schools/gssw/nrcpds/
    The NRCPDS provides leadership, technical assistance, training, education and research about participant direction. Their website offers a handbook on participant-directed programs, links to services available in each state, archived webinars, tools and searchable resources.
  • Personal Assistance Services
    http://www.accessiblesociety.org/topics/persasst/index.htm
    The Center for an Accessible Society offers information on Personal Assistance Services, with links to expert sources, nursing home data, abuse of seniors, in-home services and more.

Journal and Magazine Articles

  • Are Satisfaction with and Self-management of Personal Assistance Services associated with the Life Satisfaction of Persons with Physical Disabilities?
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21091134
    A survey compared perspectives of consumer-directed and agency-directed care with consumer-directed participants reporting higher satisfaction with their PAS, greater control over services, and greater quality of life. Fleming-Castaldy, R.P. (2011). Disability and Rehabilitation.
  • The Current State of Personal Assistance Services: Implications for Policy and Future Research
    http://content.iospress.com/articles/neurorehabilitation/nre00221?resultNumber=0&totalResults=13723&start=0&q=Current+State+of+Personal+Assistance+Services&resultsPageSize=10&rows=10
    PAS literature is reviewed for people with spinal cord injuries and other disabilities. Evidence-based recommendations are made for PAS policy initiatives and future research directions. Hagglund, K.J., Clark, M.J, Mokelke, E.K. & Stout, B.J. (2004). NeuroRehabilitation.
  • Personal Assistance Services (PAS) for Workers with Disabilities: Views and Experiences of Rehabilitation Counselors
    http://www.dsq-sds.org/article/view/31/31
    There has been minimal use of PAS in promoting employment. Research was conducted to determine the experiences of rehabilitation service providers, who indicated that the success of PAS depended on strong relationships with employers. Barriers to work-related PAS included lack of qualified assistants, transportation, and employers' lack of understanding of PAS. Misra, S., Orslene, L.E., & Walls, R.T. (2007). Disability Studies Quarterly.

Sample Forms, Plans and Agreements

Several centers for independent living (CILs) have made available examples of forms and documents used in their centers.